Sorge um den Golfstrom: Wärmepumpe verliert Energie

Der Golfstrom schwächt sich ab. Dies ist das Ergebnis eines Teams von britischen, irischen und deutschen Wissenschaftlern, das sie nun im Fachjournal „Nature Geosciences“ veröffentlichten. Was gravierende Folgen für das Klima in Europa haben wird.

Neue Daten, die von den Experten zusammengetragen und ausgewertet wurden zeigen, dass das Golfstrom-System so schwach wie seit mehr als 1000 Jahren funktioniert. Einfach erklärt handelt es sich dabei um eine gigantische Wärmepumpe, die das Klima in Europa stabil hält.

Oder wissenschaftlicher beschrieben: Das Golfstrom-System (auch Atlantische Meridionale Umwälzströmung genannt) funktioniert „wie ein riesiges Förderband, das warmes Oberflächenwasser vom Äquator nach Norden transportiert und kaltes, salzarmes Tiefenwasser zurück in den Süden schickt“. So erklärt es Stefan Rahmstorf, Forscher am Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), in der aktuellen Ausgabe des „Spiegel“.

Golfstrom schwächt sich ab

Schon seit einiger Zeit weist Rahmsdorf darauf hin, dass sich diese wichtige Meeresströmung um 15 Prozent verlangsamt hat. Die Ursache sieht der Wissenschaftler im menschgemachten Klimawandel. Weil wichtige Parameter erst seit 2004 erfasst werden, gibt es noch keine balastbaren Aussagen darüber, wie sich das Golfstrom System weiterentwickelt.

Für die aktuelle Untersuchung haben die Forscher aus Großbritannien, Irland und Deutschland drei Datentypen verwendet.

  • die Temperaturänderungen im Atlantik,
  • die Verteilung der Wassermassen
  • die Korngrößen der Tiefseesedimente,

Angetrieben wird das System durch Unterschiede der Dichte des Wassers in den Ozeanen. Warmes, salzhaltiges Oberflächenwasser fließt von Süden nach Norden. Dort kühlt es ab, wird dichter und sinkt in tiefere Meeresschichten. Es fließt zurück in den Süden. Weil es im Norden aber häufiger regnet und das grönländischen Eis schmilzt, fließt mehr Süßwasser in den Nordatlantik. Die Dichte des Wassers wird verringert das Absinken gehemmt – und, logisch: die Strömung schwächer.

Die Folgen für Europa

Noch ist der Golfstrom stabil. Sollte sich das Klima weiter erwärmen, schwächt sich das System um bis zu 45% im Jahr 2100 ab. Mit schweren Folgen: extreme Stürme nehmen zu. Hitzewellen und Trockenheit im Sommer. Lange, bittere Kälteperioden sind wahrscheinlich.

Der Appell der Forscher ist daher klar: Die Bemühungen, die Erderwärmung zu stoppen, müssen intensiviert werden.

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